Chest Wall Tumors

Chest Wall Tumors

Wed, 05 Jul 2023

Chest Wall Tumors

Despite being very uncommon, chest wall tumours can comprise a variety of benign and malignant tumours that arise inside the chest wall, which is made up of the ribs, muscles, and connective tissues. These tumours can develop from a variety of chest-related tissues, giving rise to a wide variety of manifestations and subsequent problems that can be heightened by a variety of external and internal factors. 

Chest Wall tumors usually cause no symptoms and present as a lump growing in the chest wall. Tumors of the chest wall include those that grow on the ribs and sternum. These can be both malignant and benign.

Types Of Chest Wall Tumours

Primary Chest Wall Tumours: These malignancies develop directly inside the chest wall. Malignant (cancerous) or benign (non-cancerous) ones are both possible. Chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and Ewings sarcoma are a few examples.

Secondary Chest Wall Tumours: Also referred to as metastatic tumours, these malignancies spread from other body areas, such as the lungs, breasts, or bones, to the chest wall.
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Common Symptoms

Depending on where they are, how big they are, and whether or not they are benign or malignant, chest wall tumours can present with a wide range of signs and symptoms. 

Some typical signs include:

  • Pain: The main symptom is frequently persistent, localised pain. From a subtle discomfort to a sudden, stabbing pain, it might vary.
  • Swelling: On the chest wall, there may be visible or palpable lumps or masses.
  • Breathing Problems: Huge tumours may compress the lungs or airways, making it difficult to breathe.
  • Cough: Long-lasting coughing may be brought on by tumours close to the respiratory system.
  • Chest Wall Deformity: Tumours can occasionally alter the contour of the chest or produce abnormalities.
  • Neurological symptoms: On occasion, tumours in the chest wall might damage nerves, causing numbness, weakness, or discomfort in the arms or trunk.

Chest Wall tumors usually cause no symptoms and present as a lump growing in the chest wall. Occasionally it may cause local pain or even fractures of the ribs.

Diagnosing Chest Wall Tumors

It takes a systematic strategy that combines clinical assessment, imaging, and tissue collection to diagnose chest wall tumours. The diagnosis is confirmed by a carefully performed biopsy.

  • Clinical Evaluation: A complete medical history and physical checkup are the first steps in the clinical evaluation, which also include palpating the chest region to feel for lumps, discomfort, or other abnormalities.
  • Imaging Tests: A number of imaging tests, including X-rays, CT scans, MRIs, and PET scans, are used to determine the extent, location, and features of the tumour. They shed light on the size and connections between the tumour and adjacent structures.
  • Biopsy: A specimen of tissue, or biopsy, is usually needed to determine if a tumour is benign or cancerous. Depending on how accessible the tumour is, needle, surgical, or image-guided biopsies are carried out.
  • Pathological Examination: To ascertain the malignancy, particular cancer type, and grade when malignant, a pathologist analyses the tissue specimen under a microscope.
  • Staging: If cancer is found, further imaging determines its stage and guides therapy choices.

Surgery for Chest Wall Tumours

The goal of surgery for chest wall tumours is to remove the tumour while keeping the patients breathing and chest wall function intact. A multidisciplinary team of surgeons, oncologists, and other professionals frequently performs surgery on chest wall tumours. The objective is to completely remove the tumour while retaining as much of the normal function of the chest wall as is feasible. The precise surgical strategy is determined by the tumours size, location, and malignant or benign nature.

  • Wide Local Excision: This method is frequently used to remove benign tumours or early-stage malignancies. The surgeon eliminates the tumour along with a margin of surrounding healthy tissue. This keeps the chest wall functioning while reducing the danger of recurrence.
  • Chest Wall Resection: The surgeon might need to cut a part of the chest wall in order to treat bigger tumours or more advanced malignancies. This occasionally involves the ribs or other surrounding structures. The chest wall deformity may be fixed using tissue flaps or artificial materials.
  • Minimally Invasive Surgery: Whenever practical, doctors employ minimally invasive procedures like robotic surgery or VATS (video-assisted thoracic surgery). These methods feature fewer incisions, less discomfort, and quicker healing.
  • Reconstruction: To restore the stability of the chest wall and safeguard essential organs, reconstruction may be required following tumour removal. This may entail the use of mesh, grafts, or other substances.
  • Lymph Node Dissection: In cancer instances, it may be necessary to remove surrounding lymph nodes to look for signs of cancer spread.
  • Pain management: Its important to control post-operative pain, and several methods, such as nerve blocks and drugs, are employed.

It is usually important for patients to recover and undergo rehabilitation judiciously, and they could need physical therapy to fully restore their strength and flexibility. Each patients personal needs will be taken into account while determining the surgical strategy and after-care schedule.

The treatment for chest wall tumors is done by surgery in which complete removal of full thickness of chest wall including all the muscles and ribs with more than 2 cm clear margin around the tumor and then reconstruction of the chest wall by using various imported synthetic materials, including complex plastic surgery operations.


Patients experience | Huge Chest Wall Tumour Surgery